Tonsillectomy is a surgery to remove the tonsils. The tonsils are glands at the back of your throat. The tonsils are often removed along with the adenoid glands. That surgery is called adenoidectomy and is most often done in children. The surgery is done while the child is under general anesthesia. Your child will be asleep and pain-free.
• The surgeon will place a small tool into your child’s mouth to hold it open.
• The surgeon then cuts, burns, or shaves away the tonsils. The wounds heal naturally without stitches.
After surgery, your child will stay in the recovery room until he or she is awake and can breathe easily, cough, and swallow. Most children go home several hours after this surgery.
The tonsils help protect against infections. But children with large tonsils may have problems breathing at night. The tonsils may also trap excess bacteria which can lead to frequent or very painful sore throats. In either of these cases, the child’s tonsils have become more harmful than protective.
You and your child’s health care provider may consider a tonsillectomy if:
• Your child has infections often (7 or more times in 1 year, or 5 or more times each year over the last 2 years).
• Your child misses a lot of school.
• Your child has trouble breathing and does not sleep well because the tonsils block the airway (sleep apnea).
• Your child has an abscess or a growth on the tonsils.
• Your child gets frequent and bothersome tonsil stones.
Septoplasty is surgery performed to correct any problems in the nasal septum, the structure inside the nose that separates the nose into two chambers.
Most people receive general anesthesia for septoplasty. You will be asleep and pain-free. Some people have the surgery under local anesthesia, which numbs the area to block pain. You will stay awake if you have local anesthesia. Surgery takes about 1 to 1½ hours. Most people go home the same day.
To do the procedure:
The surgeon makes a cut inside the wall on one side of your nose.
• The mucous membrane that covers the wall is elevated.
• Cartilage or bone that is causing the blockage in the area is moved, repositioned or taken out.
• The mucous membrane is put back in place. The membrane will be held in place by stitches, splints, or packing material.
The main reasons for this surgery are:
• To repair a crooked, bent, or deformed nasal septum that blocks the airway in the nose.
People with this condition very often breathe through their mouth and may be more likely to get nasal or sinus infections.
• To treat nosebleeds that cannot be controlled.
Adenoid removal is surgery to take out the adenoid glands. The adenoid glands sit behind your nose above the roof of your mouth in the nasopharynx. Air passes over these glands when you take a breath.
The adenoids are often taken out at the same time as the tonsils (tonsillectomy).
Adenoid removal is also called adenoidectomy. The procedure is most often done in children.
Your child will be given general anesthesia before surgery. This means your child will be asleep and unable to feel pain.
• The surgeon places a small tool into your child’s mouth to keep it open.
• The surgeon removes the adenoid glands using a spoon-shaped tool (curette). Or, another tool that helps cut away soft tissue is used.
• Some surgeons use electricity to heat the tissue, remove it, and stop bleeding. This is called electrocautery. Another method uses radiofrequency (RF) energy to do the same thing. This is called coblation. A cutting tool called a debrider can also be used to remove the adenoid tissue.
• Absorbent material called packing material may also be used to control bleeding.
Your child will stay in the recovery room after surgery. You will be allowed to take your child home when your child is awake and can breathe easily, cough, and swallow. In most cases, this will be a few hours after surgery.
A health care provider may recommend this procedure if:
• Enlarged adenoids are blocking your child’s airway. Symptoms in your child can include heavy snoring, problems breathing through the nose, and episodes of not breathing during sleep.
• Your child has chronic ear infections that occur often, continue despite use of antibiotics, cause hearing loss, or cause the child to miss a lot of school days.
Adenoidectomy may also be recommended if your child has tonsillitis that keeps coming back.
The adenoids normally shrink as children grow older. Adults rarely need to have them removed.
THYROID GLAND REMOVAL
Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located inside the front of the lower neck.
The thyroid gland is part of the hormone (endocrine) system. It helps your body regulate your metabolism.
Depending on the reason you are having your thyroid gland removed, the type of thyroidectomy you have will be either a:
• Total thyroidectomy, which removes the entire gland
• Subtotal or partial thyroidectomy, which removes part of the thyroid gland
You will have general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free) for this surgery. In rare cases, the surgery is done with local anesthesia and medicine to relax you. You will be awake, but pain-free.
During the surgery:
• The surgeon makes a horizontal cut in the front of your lower neck just above the collar bones.
• All or part of the gland is removed through the cut.
• The surgeon is careful not to damage the blood vessels and nerves in your neck.
• A small tube (catheter) may be placed into the area to help drain blood and other fluids that build up.
The drain will be removed in 1 or 2 days.
• The cuts are closed with sutures (stitches).
Surgery to remove your whole thyroid may take up to 4 hours. It may take less time if only part of the thyroid is removed.
Newer techniques that require a smaller incision near the thyroid or at other locations and which involve the use of endoscopy have been developed.
Your doctor may recommend thyroid removal if you have any of the following:
• A small thyroid growth (nodule or cyst)
• A thyroid gland that is so overactive it is dangerous (thyrotoxicosis)
• Cancer of the thyroid
• Noncancerous (benign) tumors of the thyroid that are causing symptoms
• Thyroid swelling (nontoxic goiter) that makes it hard for you to breathe or swallow
You may also have surgery if you have an overactive thyroid gland and do not want to have radioactive iodine treatment, or you cannot be treated with antithyroid medicines.