Great Scientists of Traditional Medicine

Needle Therapy
balloon therapy

Georgis, a member of the Bakhtishu family, is known as the first physician. Masuyeh was also one of JundiShapur’s physicians in the 8th century CE who was chosen as Harun al-Rasheed’s private physician. Daghal al-Ain is the oldest ophthalmology textbook written by John b. Masuyeh in the late 8th century CE. In the 9th century CE, a great movement was formed in the compilation and translation of medical, ophthalmology, botanical and zoological books.

This movement led to the translation of many Greek, Syrian, Pahlavi and Hindi books into Arabic, the official language of that era. In the same century, Hanin b. Ishaq was known as the most famous translator with 99 works translated into Arabic. In the meantime, the translation of the encyclopaedia de Materia Medica by Dioscorides is well known. This translation, entitled “Hewli al-Tab fi al-Hasha’ish” and al-Samum, which is related to ophthalmology, botany and zoology, became a reference for currencies in chemistry and ophthalmology.

Medical science reached its peak in the 11th-10th centuries with the works of Muhammad b. Zakaria al-Razi and Ibn Sina. The services of these two scientists made traditional Iranian medicine known all over the world and had many effects on medical science in the world.

Temperament Survey

What is the science of temperament?

Psychology is a broad science that has interesting applications for diagnosing the physical and mental characteristics of each individual and is very effective in diagnosing and treating various diseases. Every food we eat has important effects on all parts of our body. By identifying our temperament, we can avoid eating foods that are problematic for us, and conversely, identify foods that are beneficial to us and help store more energy. Of all the lifestyle factors, diet is by far the most effective and simple factor that can be completely under your control.

In general, we have two types of temperament that differ in concept:

• Intrinsic temperament

• Temperament caused by the disease

In temperament science, all foods are classified according to whether they are hot, cold, wet or dry. This classification of foods is related to the different temperaments and the effects that each of these temperaments has on a person’s mood and physical condition. Milk, for example, is warmer. Chicken is hot and dry. If the food that suits a person’s temperament is consumed too much, for example, the person’s temperament is cold and he consumes more cold substances can have a negative effect on a person’s health and vice versa.

Humans, animals, organs and organs, plants, rocks and everything we see around us have temperaments.
Just as each food has a specific temperament, spices can have different temperaments depending on the type: Warm, temperate, cold


This type of treatment, which has been used in traditional Iranian medicine for a long time, has been used with different methods and names. Reducing body moisture, relieving back and joint pain, skin irritation of the nervous system, etc. have been among the cases of prescribing massage in different amounts and methods. Massage is a type of exercise and has many benefits, some of which are mentioned:
• Analysis of a thick substance that is attached to a part of the body.

• Analysis of wind or bloating in a part of the body.

• Absorb matter from top to bottom.

• Delivering the effect of oils to the body organs.

• Enlargement of a body part


Types of Massage:

• Rough:

Massage is done with a rough cloth and its benefit is the absorption of blood to the body. By persisting in this type of deck, in addition to other measures, some thin people can become obese.

• Emulsions:

It is anti-rough massage.

• Stiff:

Massage is done with strength and strengthens the limb.

• Soft:

Gently massaged, relaxes the limbs.

• Multiple:

Continuous and long-lasting massage causes slimming of the limbs.

• Moderate:

done in moderation, persistence on it causes obesity.

Today, various massage methods are common in most schools of traditional and complementary medicine and in disciplines such as physiotherapy. Application of massage with new names such as Massage, Attrition, Friction, Scrub, etc. in increasing the health of the body and immune system, improving patients with cystic fibrosis and as a safe and good method for patients with some joint-muscle problems is proven.

Leech Therapy

Leech therapy

Leech therapy has been used for thousands of years to treat nervous system disorders, dental problems, skin diseases and infections.

Today, in addition to these cases, leech therapy is used after a variety of plastic surgeries and other microscopic surgeries. Because leeches secrete in their saliva the anticoagulant anticoagulant, which prevents blood clots in the body and improves blood circulation. Better blood flow will heal wounds faster.

Leech therapy is sometimes the best alternative treatment for diseases and sometimes even works better than drug treatments. Due to the healing effects of leech therapy on the human body, this traditional treatment has become very popular among the people. Currently, leech treatment is considered because of its simplicity and low cost.

History of leech therapy:

Leeches have been used medicinally for 2,500 years in India, Greece, Iran, Rome and then in Europe. In the nineteenth century, leech therapy was used as a treatment for headaches, fever, infectious wounds, etc.

Leech therapy is known as one of the common methods in traditional Iranian medicine and its use in Iran is several years old. Regarding the use of leech therapy in the treatment of many diseases, Abu Ali Sina wrote in his law book that after the translation of his works, leech therapy and leechology became popular in the West.

How is leech treatment done?

In this method, leeches are placed on the skin and leeches pierce the skin with their teeth.
Leech treatment usually takes between 20 and 45 minutes, during which time each leech sucks 15 milliliters of blood. Zoologists have so far identified 600 species of leeches, 15 of which are used in medicine. Some leeches are poisonous and may be dangerous to human health. For this reason, this operation must be performed by an expert.

During leech treatment, leeches secrete three substances, which are:

 Local anesthetic (to reduce pain)

 Vasodilator (to improve blood circulation)

 Heroin and choline (to prevent blood clots)

What are the benefits of leech therapy?

Leech therapy is recommended for people with diabetes, people with heart disease and even those with varicose veins.

Among the diseases that leech therapy can help treat are:

• Circulatory disorders and cardiovascular disease

• blood pressure

• Varicose veins

• Hemorrhoids

• Skin problems

• Arthritis

Researchers believe that leech therapy is useful in treating joint problems such as osteoarthritis and reduces joint pain and tenderness due to its anti-inflammatory and anesthetic properties.

Who should avoid leech treatment?

People with anemia or damaged arteries are not good candidates for leech treatment. People under the age of 18 and pregnant women are also advised to avoid this treatment.



The word means to open a vein and in traditional Iranian medicine, it is one of the types of vomiting through which, usually, some blood comes out of the veins of the body.

Venesection is one of the strongest treatment methods and is used in different ways and at certain times to treat some diseases such as abnormal increase in blood and prevent edema following trauma to the head.

What is venesection therapy?

Venesection therapy is a traditional and scientific method that is performed by making an incision or perforation of a blood vessel to reduce the amount of iron and the number of red blood cells to treat some diseases.
Therefore, if one of the organs of the body suffers from inflammation caused by hyperemia, venesection therapy is performed in a suitable and related vessel.

This method is a traditional and painless treatment and has no side effects. For best results, this should be done by a qualified physician, and depending on your medical condition and illness, the vessel should be correctly identified.

The method of venesection therapy is different from the cupping method. Because in cupping, incisions are made on the surface of the skin and blood comes out of the capillaries. In venesection therapy, incisions are made in the body’s main arteries. If you are undergoing venesection therapy, you cannot donate blood at the same time.

As mentioned, the goal of venesection therapy is to reduce iron levels and red blood cell counts. Hemochromatosis and polycythemia are some of the diseases that can be cured by this method.

What are the symptoms of an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells?

• feeling exhausted

• Shortness of breath

• Muscle weakness

• Abnormal pale skin

• Glossitis (swelling of the tongue)

• Loss of appetite and weight

• Diarrhea

• nausea

• Fast heartbeat (heartbeat)

• Burning in the hands and feet

• Numbness in the limbs

• Sleep disorder

These symptoms can affect anyone. If you experience these symptoms repeatedly, you should see a doctor.

How is venesection therapy performed?

Before the venesection therapy, your doctor will explain the procedure and ask questions about the medications you are taking. Your blood pressure is taken before the operation.

A needle is used to insert the cannula into the vein. A bandage is fastened to hold the needle in place. A sac attached to the cannula is used to collect the drawn blood.

After venesection therapy, you may feel lethargic, which improves with rest and drinking natural juices and fluids. It is best to drink up to 2 liters of fluids daily for the first 48 hours.

After the venesection therapy, you will feel relaxed for a few days and you can do all your daily activities.
The number of venesection therapy sessions is determined by the individual’s condition. Once the level of red blood cells is under control, it is enough to repeat this operation every 6 to 12 weeks. Your doctor will determine the time it takes to repeat the procedure based on your medical condition.

Why choose venesection therapy for treatment?

venesection therapy is effective in treating many diseases, including heart disease, liver disease, polycythemia, and genetic hemochromatosis. This method is very safe and will not cause any side effects.
venesection therapy is performed very quickly and does not require medication. This method has the least side effects and is very effective in reducing red blood cells. It also greatly reduces the risk of an increase in red blood cells and does not change the number of white blood cells.
By repeating the venesection therapy, the red blood cell count will return to normal, making pumping of the heart much more efficient.

Tell your doctor if you have any of the following conditions:

• Taking blood anticoagulants

• Warfarin consumption

• Taking blood pressure medications

• Weight less than 49 kg

• History of fainting or lethargy while bleeding

• Heart disease

• Nervous problems

• Pregnancy


balloon therapy

Cupping therapy

Cupping is one of the ancient and traditional methods that can be used as an alternative to medical treatments and other treatments.

This procedure is done using special cups that are placed on the skin. Cupping cups may be made of glass, bamboo, pottery and silicone.

People do cupping for a variety of reasons, such as relieving pain and inflammation, improving blood circulation, relaxing and healthy the body, and deep massaging body tissues.

There are two methods for cupping:

1) Dry method: only ballooning is done.

2) Wet method: In this method, first the balloon is performed and then the cupping operation is performed.

Wet cupping

Wet cupping can be done in two ways:

• Hot cupping:

In this method, cups and fire are used for suction and it is the same as traditional cupping.

• Cold cupping:
This method uses electric or manual suction.
Cupping may be very popular these days, but it is not a new method and its use dates back to the cultures of ancient Egypt, China, Iran and the Middle East.

History of cupping therapy

Cupping has been used for thousands of years to treat many diseases in different cultures around the world.
Evidence suggests that Iranians used cupping in the past. The type of wet cupping has been very popular among Iranians.

All the greats of traditional Iranian medicine have introduced cupping as one of the important pillars of treatment. Zakaria Razi in the book “Al-Hawi” and Abu Ali Sina in the book “Law” have talked in detail about cupping and its application in the treatment of various diseases.

Cupping has been practiced for more than 5,000 years in areas such as China, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, Bulgaria, Egypt and North Africa, and evidence suggests that North American Indians were also familiar with its healing effects.

Cupping removes harmful and toxic substances from the body and improves the health of the body. To explain further, it is good to know that the main function of the liver is to produce and purify blood. The liver sends moist blood to the kidneys to retain moisture. It also sends dead cells to the spleen along with toxins. Toxins enter the large intestine through the spleen and are excreted in the feces.

When the spleen is full, the liver sends excess blood to the back of the heart (between the scapulae, the back of the neck, and the back) through a blood vessel called a filter. When cupping is done in the area between the two shoulders, blood toxins are actually removed from the filter vessel, which helps purify the blood in the spleen. Thus, cupping is effective in treating diseases.

If cupping is done at the same time as acupuncture, it may be better and more effective in treating some diseases, such as:

• Herpes zoster (skin disease)

• Acne

• Facial paralysis

• Cervical spondylosis

How is cupping done?

The doctor injects a flammable substance, such as alcohol or paper, into the fire cup and, when the fire is extinguished, places the cup on the skin. When the air inside the cup cools, the cup acts like a vacuum.

Evidence suggests that Iranians used cupping in the past. The type of wet cupping has been very popular among Iranians.
In this case, the skin becomes red and protruding and the veins in that part dilate. In the more advanced method, the balloon is operated by a pump instead of using fire. After 3 minutes, the doctor removes the cup and makes superficial, narrow incisions in the skin with a razor.

He then performs the balloon operation again in those areas that cause a small amount of bleeding from the skin. After cupping, your doctor may prescribe antibiotic ointment to prevent infection. The skin returns to its normal state within 10 days.

What are the benefits of cupping therapy?

Cupping is useful for treating various diseases.

Among the diseases that can be treated with this method are:

• Blood disorders such as anemia and hemophilia

• Rheumatic diseases such as arthritis and fibromyalgia

• Infertility and gynecological diseases

• Skin problems such as eczema and acne

• High blood pressure

• Migraine

• Stress and depression

• Bronchial congestion due to allergies and asthma

• Varicose veins

Who should avoid cupping therapy?

It should be noted that cupping should be avoided in the main and small arteries. Those who are hungry, eaten or very tired should not cupping.

It is also recommended that people with the following diseases not cupping:

• have mild or serious heart disease and heart failure.

• Have severe mental disorders, seizures and anger.

• have a history of heavy bleeding and diseases such as hemophilia, hepatitis B and leukemia.

• have very sensitive skin or their skin is sore.

• have tuberculosis.

• Women who are pregnant.

Needle Therapy

Needle therapy involves placing very thin needles into the skin at strategic points on the body. Needle therapy, a key component of traditional Chinese medicine, is often used to treat pain. Needle therapy is widely used in other areas of health, including stress management.
Traditional Chinese medicine considers acupuncture as a way to balance the flow of energy or vital force that it believes flows through the pathways (disciples) in your body. The life force is called qi. Acupuncturists believe that by placing the needle at specific points along these paths, your energy flow will be rebalanced.
Contrary to many people’s beliefs, acupuncture is considered by many Westerners to be a place to stimulate nerves, muscles, and connective tissue. Some people believe that this stimulation increases the secretion of natural painkillers in your body.

Needle Therapy

Why is Needle therapy performed?

Needle therapy is mainly used to reduce discomfort associated with a variety of diseases and conditions, including:

• Nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy and after surgery

• toothache

• Headaches, including migraine headaches

• Birth pain

• back ache

• Neck Pain

• Osteoarthritis

• Menstrual cramps

• Respiratory disorders, such as inflammation of the allergic nasal mucosa

Potential risks

If you see a reputable Needle therapy and the needles are sterile, the potential risks of Needle therapy are minimal. Common side effects include minor pain and bleeding or bruising at the site of the needle. Disposable needles are used in Needle therapy, so the risk of infection is minimal. Not all people are good candidates for Needle therapy.

You may be at risk for side effects if you:

Have a bleeding disorder. If you have a bleeding disorder or if you are taking blood thinners, you are more likely to have bleeding or bruising from the needles.

You have an artificial pacemaker for your heart. Needle therapy, which involves the use of light electrical pulses to the needle, can cause the pacemaker to malfunction.

You are pregnant. Some types of Needle therapy stimulate labor and can lead to preterm labor.

How to prepare for Needle therapy?

No special preparation is required before Needle therapy treatment.

What to expect?

During treatment, an acupuncturist inserts very thin needles into specific areas of the body. Inserting a needle usually causes a slight discomfort.

Acupuncture has its own unique style for each person and often combines the eastern and western aspects of the procedure. Your doctor may ask you questions about your symptoms, behaviors, and lifestyle to determine the right acupuncture treatment for you.

He or she may also look closely at the following:

• Parts of your body that are painful

• The shape, coverage and color of your tongue

• The color of your face

• The strength, rhythm and quality of the heartbeat in your wrist

This initial examination and treatment may take up to 60 minutes. Subsequent treatment sessions usually last about half an hour. A typical treatment plan for just one problem involves one or two sessions a week. The number of treatment sessions depends on the condition and its severity. Generally, six to eight sessions of treatment are usually needed.

During the acupuncture process

Acupuncture points are located on all parts of the body. Sometimes the right places are away from the pain area. Your acupuncturist will explain where to treat and whether you need to remove clothing from a specific part of the body.

A sheet is placed on the bed and you lie on the bed for treatment, the treatment includes the following:

Needle Insertion: Acupuncture needles are inserted deep into different parts of your body. The needles are very thin, so they usually cause a little discomfort. Most people do not feel the needles at all. Between 5 and 20 needles are used during normal treatment. When the needle reaches the right depth, you will feel a slight burning sensation.

Needle Manipulation: Your therapist may move, rotate, or apply light thermal or electrical pulses to the needles after inserting them.

Removing the needle: In most cases, the needles stay in place for 10 to 20 minutes while you are still asleep and resting. There is usually no discomfort when removing the needles.

After this procedure, some people feel relaxed and others get energy after acupuncture treatment. But not everyone responds to acupuncture. If your symptoms do not improve within a few weeks, acupuncture may not be right for you.


Measuring the benefits of acupuncture is sometimes difficult, but many people find acupuncture useful as a means of controlling a variety of painful conditions.

Acupuncture has few side effects, so if you have a problem that does not improve with conventional methods, acupuncture is worth trying.